Docker常用命令整理

收集整理常用的Docker命令。

容器类

查看Docker基础信息

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# 查看docker版本
$ docker version
# 显示docker系统的信息
$ docker info

容器操作

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# 查询运行中的容器
$ docker ps

# 查看所有的容器
$ docker ps -a

# 启动|停止|重启|杀死容器 anyesu-container
$ docker start | stop | restart | kill anyesu-container

# - docker rm [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [CONTAINER...]
# 删除Id为c6e7471292e0的容器
$ docker rm c6e7471292e0

# - docker inspect [OPTIONS] NAME|ID [NAME|ID...]
# 检视Id为97763bd57c69的容器
$ docker inspect 97763bd57c69

# - docker top CONTAINER [ps OPTIONS]
# 查看容器中正在运行的进程
$ docker top 97763bd57c69

# - docker commit [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]
# 保存容器为镜像
$ docker commit tomcat wangwei01/tomcat:1.0

# 根据Dockerfile 构建
$ docker build -t [image_name] [Dockerfile_path]

交互式进入容器

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$ docker exec -it {{containerName or containerID}} bash
$ docker exec -i {{containerName or containerID}} bash
$ docker exec -t {{containerName or containerID}} bash
$ docker exec -d {{containerName or containerID}} bash
  • 只用 -i 参数,由于没有分配伪终端,看起来像pipe执行一样。但是执行结果、命令返回值都可以正确获取
  • 只用 -t 参数,则可以看到一个 console 窗口,但是执行命令会发现由于没有获得stdin的输出,无法看到命令执行情况
  • 使用 -it 时,则和我们平常操作 console 界面类似,而且也不会像attach方式因为退出,导致整个容器退出
  • 使用 -d 参数,在后台执行一个进程。如果一个命令需要长时间进程,会很快返回

Docker run

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$ docker run [OPTIONS] IMAGE [COMMAND] [ARG...]

run命令选项

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Options:
--add-host list Add a custom host-to-IP mapping (host:ip)
-a, --attach list Attach to STDIN, STDOUT or STDERR
--blkio-weight uint16 Block IO (relative weight), between 10 and 1000, or 0 to disable (default 0)
--blkio-weight-device list Block IO weight (relative device weight) (default [])
--cap-add list Add Linux capabilities
--cap-drop list Drop Linux capabilities
--cgroup-parent string Optional parent cgroup for the container
--cidfile string Write the container ID to the file
--cpu-period int Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) period
--cpu-quota int Limit CPU CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) quota
--cpu-rt-period int Limit CPU real-time period in microseconds
--cpu-rt-runtime int Limit CPU real-time runtime in microseconds
-c, --cpu-shares int CPU shares (relative weight)
--cpus decimal Number of CPUs
--cpuset-cpus string CPUs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
--cpuset-mems string MEMs in which to allow execution (0-3, 0,1)
-d, --detach Run container in background and print container ID
--detach-keys string Override the key sequence for detaching a container
--device list Add a host device to the container
--device-cgroup-rule list Add a rule to the cgroup allowed devices list
--device-read-bps list Limit read rate (bytes per second) from a device (default [])
--device-read-iops list Limit read rate (IO per second) from a device (default [])
--device-write-bps list Limit write rate (bytes per second) to a device (default [])
--device-write-iops list Limit write rate (IO per second) to a device (default [])
--disable-content-trust Skip image verification (default true)
--dns list Set custom DNS servers
--dns-option list Set DNS options
--dns-search list Set custom DNS search domains
--entrypoint string Overwrite the default ENTRYPOINT of the image
-e, --env list Set environment variables
--env-file list Read in a file of environment variables
--expose list Expose a port or a range of ports
--group-add list Add additional groups to join
--health-cmd string Command to run to check health
--health-interval duration Time between running the check (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
--health-retries int Consecutive failures needed to report unhealthy
--health-start-period duration Start period for the container to initialize before starting health-retries countdown (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
--health-timeout duration Maximum time to allow one check to run (ms|s|m|h) (default 0s)
--help Print usage
-h, --hostname string Container host name
--init Run an init inside the container that forwards signals and reaps processes
-i, --interactive Keep STDIN open even if not attached
--ip string IPv4 address (e.g., 172.30.100.104)
--ip6 string IPv6 address (e.g., 2001:db8::33)
--ipc string IPC mode to use
--isolation string Container isolation technology
--kernel-memory bytes Kernel memory limit
-l, --label list Set meta data on a container
--label-file list Read in a line delimited file of labels
--link list Add link to another container
--link-local-ip list Container IPv4/IPv6 link-local addresses
--log-driver string Logging driver for the container
--log-opt list Log driver options
--mac-address string Container MAC address (e.g., 92:d0:c6:0a:29:33)
-m, --memory bytes Memory limit
--memory-reservation bytes Memory soft limit
--memory-swap bytes Swap limit equal to memory plus swap: '-1' to enable unlimited swap
--memory-swappiness int Tune container memory swappiness (0 to 100) (default -1)
--mount mount Attach a filesystem mount to the container
--name string Assign a name to the container
--network string Connect a container to a network (default "default")
--network-alias list Add network-scoped alias for the container
--no-healthcheck Disable any container-specified HEALTHCHECK
--oom-kill-disable Disable OOM Killer
--oom-score-adj int Tune host's OOM preferences (-1000 to 1000)
--pid string PID namespace to use
--pids-limit int Tune container pids limit (set -1 for unlimited)
--privileged Give extended privileges to this container
-p, --publish list Publish a container's port(s) to the host
-P, --publish-all Publish all exposed ports to random ports
--read-only Mount the container's root filesystem as read only
--restart string Restart policy to apply when a container exits (default "no")
--rm Automatically remove the container when it exits
--runtime string Runtime to use for this container
--security-opt list Security Options
--shm-size bytes Size of /dev/shm
--sig-proxy Proxy received signals to the process (default true)
--stop-signal string Signal to stop a container (default "SIGTERM")
--stop-timeout int Timeout (in seconds) to stop a container
--storage-opt list Storage driver options for the container
--sysctl map Sysctl options (default map[])
--tmpfs list Mount a tmpfs directory
-t, --tty Allocate a pseudo-TTY
--ulimit ulimit Ulimit options (default [])
-u, --user string Username or UID (format: <name|uid>[:<group|gid>])
--userns string User namespace to use
--uts string UTS namespace to use
-v, --volume list Bind mount a volume
--volume-driver string Optional volume driver for the container
--volumes-from list Mount volumes from the specified container(s)
-w, --workdir string Working directory inside the container

镜像类

远程镜像仓库

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# - docker search [OPTIONS] TERM
# 搜索处收藏数不小于3的alpine镜像
$ docker search -f=stars=3 alpine

# - docker pull [OPTIONS] NAME[:TAG|@DIGEST]
# 拉取ubuntu最新的镜像
$ docker pull ubuntu:latest

# - docker push NAME[:TAG]
# 推送本地镜像到远程仓库
$ docker push alpine:1.1

本地镜像

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# 列出本地所有镜像
$ docker images -a

# 本地镜像名为 java 的所有镜像
$ docker images java

# - docker inspect [OPTIONS] NAME|ID [NAME|ID...]
# 查看镜像详情
$ docker inspect java

# - docker tag SOURCE_IMAGE[:TAG] TARGET_IMAGE[:TAG]
# 修改镜像Tag
$ docker tag java java:9

# - docker rmi [OPTIONS] IMAGE [IMAGE...]
# 本地移除名为 hello-world 的镜像
$ docker rmi hello-world

# 移除本地全部镜像
$ docker rmi `docker images -a -q`

# - docker save [OPTIONS] IMAGE [IMAGE...]
# 指定镜像保存成 tar 归档文件
# 将镜像 tomcat:8 保存为 tomcat.tar 文件
$ docker save -o tomcat.tar wangwei01/tomcat:8

# - docker load
# 将 ubuntu14.04.tar 文件载入镜像中
$ docker load -i ubuntu14.04.tar
$ docker load < /home/save.tar

参考资料

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