PRINCIPLE OF THE DAY

Principles by Ray Dalio

Author: RayDalio

LIFE PRINCIPLE

20181213

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/tHRKwrj6p5-DVNAAstF-Yg

考虑后续与再后续的结果

Our uniquely human ability to look down from a higher level doesn’t apply just to understanding reality and the cause-effect relationships underlying it; it also applies to looking down on yourself and those around you. I call this ability to rise above your own and others’ circumstances and objectively look down on them “higher-level thinking.” Higher-level thinking gives you the ability to study and influence the cause-effect relationships at play in your life and use them to get the outcomes you want.

在认识到自然进化带来的更高层面的结果后,我开始发现,如果人们过度重视决策的直接结果而忽视后续和再后续的结果,他们就很难实现目标。这是因为人们对于直接结果和后续结果的期待通常是相反的,这会造成决策的重大错误。

例如,锻炼的直接结果是疼痛和花费的时间,这通常不受人们欢迎,但后续结果是更健康和更迷人的外形,这是令人向往的。同样地,美味的食物往往对你身体不好,反之亦然。

20181212

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/W14uoLmdFRZ8SEXmSjCsRg

接受严厉的爱

In my own life, what I want to give to people, most importantly to people I love, is the power to deal with reality to get what they want. In pursuit of my goal to give them strength, I will often deny them what they “want” because that will give them the opportunity to struggle so that they can develop the strength to get what they want on their own. This can be difficult for people emotionally, even if they understand intellectually that having difficulties is the exercise they need to grow strong and that just giving them what they want will weaken them and ultimately lead to them needing more help.

Of course most people would prefer not to have weaknesses. Our upbringings and our experiences in the world have conditioned us to be embarrassed by our weaknesses and hide them. But people are happiest when they can be themselves. If you can be open with your weaknesses it will make you freer and will help you deal with them better. I urge you to not be embarrassed about your problems, recognizing that everyone has them. Bringing them to the surface will help you break your bad habits and develop good ones, and you will acquire real strengths and justifiable optimism.

在我的生活里,我想给予他人(尤其是我爱的人)最好的东西是应对现实、实现愿望的能力。为了实现这一目标,我经常拒绝他们的“愿望”,因为这样做将给予他们拼搏的机会,以便他们增强自己的力量,依靠自己实现愿望。这在情感上会让人难以接受,尽管他们在理智上明白,他们需要通过困难体验来增强能力,如果我只是给他们想要的东西,就会削弱他们,最终导致他们需要更多的帮助。

当然,大多数人都希望自己没有缺点。我们接受的各种教育和现实经历让我们对自身的缺点感到难堪,并试图掩盖缺点。然而能够真实展现自我才是最快乐的。如果你能以开放的心态看待自身缺点,就能摆脱束缚,帮助你更好地应对缺点。我建议你不要为自己的问题感到羞愧,要明白任何人都有缺点。坦诚地面对缺点将帮助你戒掉坏习惯,养成好习惯,并获得真正的能力,拥有充足的理由保持乐观。

20181211

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/W9z-1_5lndWpxdATuAHPMA

迎接而非躲避痛苦

If you don’t let up on yourself and instead become comfortable always operating with some level of pain, you will evolve at a faster pace. That’s just the way it is.

Every time you confront something painful, you are at a potentially important juncture in your life—you have the opportunity to choose healthy and painful truth or unhealthy but comfortable delusion. The irony is that if you choose the healthy route, the pain will soon turn into pleasure. The pain is the signal! Like switching from not exercising to exercising, developing the habit of embracing the pain and learning from it will “get you to the other side.” By “getting to the other side,” I mean that you will become hooked on:

  • Identifying, accepting, and learning how to deal with your weaknesses,

  • Preferring that the people around you be honest with you rather than keep their negative thoughts about you to them-selves, and

  • Being yourself rather than having to pretend to be strong where you are weak.

如果你没有放任自己,而是习惯承受一定程度的痛苦,你就会更快地进化。事实就是这样。

每当你遇到痛苦的东西时,你正处于生活中一个潜在的重要节点:你可以选择健康并痛苦的事实,也可以选择不健康但令人舒适的幻觉。妙处在于,如果你选择了健康之路,痛苦将很快变成快乐。痛苦就是信号!就像不锻炼的人开始锻炼,养成享受痛苦的习惯,从痛苦中学习,就会让人“步入新境界”。我所说的“步入新境界”是指,你会喜欢以下三点:

  • 找到、接受,并学会如何应对你的弱点;
  • 希望身边的人对你坦诚,而不是隐瞒对你的负面看法;
  • 展现真实的自我,而不是强行把弱点伪装成优势。

20181210

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/hF7J_C3IB1YkioBrgzOi3A

痛苦 + 反思 = 进步

There is no avoiding pain, especially if you’re going after ambitious goals. Believe it or not, you are lucky to feel that kind of pain if you approach it correctly, because it is a signal that you need to find solutions so you can progress. If you can develop a reflexive reaction to psychic pain that causes you to reflect on it rather than avoid it, it will lead to your rapid learning/evolving. After seeing how much more effective it is to face the painful realities that are caused by your problems, mistakes, and weaknesses, I believe you won’t want to operate any other way. It’s just a matter of getting in the habit of doing it.

Most people have a tough time reflecting when they are in pain and they pay attention to other things when the pain passes, so they miss out on the reflections that provide the lessons. If you can reflect well while you’re in pain (which is probably too much to ask), great. But if you can remember to reflect after it passes, that’s valuable too. (I created a Pain Button app to help people do this, which I describe in the appendix.)

The challenges you face will test and strengthen you. If you’re not failing, you’re not pushing your limits, and if you’re not pushing your limits, you’re not maximizing your potential. Though this process of pushing your limits, of sometimes failing and sometimes breaking through—and deriving benefits from both your failures and your successes—is not for everyone, if it is for you, it can be so thrilling that it becomes addictive. Life will inevitably bring you such moments, and it’ll be up to you to decide whether you want to go back for more.

If you choose to push through this often painful process of personal evolution, you will naturally “ascend” to higher and higher levels. As you climb above the blizzard of things that surrounds you, you will realize that they seem bigger than they really are when you are seeing them up close; that most things in life are just “another one of those.” The higher you ascend, the more effective you become at working with reality to shape outcomes toward your goals. What once seemed impossibly complex becomes simple.

人避免不了痛苦,尤其是在追求雄心勃勃的目标时。不管你相信与否,如果以正确的态度对待痛苦,感到痛苦就是你的幸运,因为这是一个信号——你需要寻找解决方案以便继续前进。如果你能形成一种条件反射,面对精神痛苦时能够自动地反思痛苦,而不是躲避痛苦,你就能够快速地学习和进化。直面那些由问题、错误和弱点导致的痛苦现实,会大幅提高你的效率,我相信,只要你看到了这种做法的好处,就不会再想以其它方式行事了。你只需要养成这样做的习惯。

大多数人在痛苦时不愿反思,而一旦痛苦消失,他们的注意力就会转移,所以他们难以通过反思得到教益。如果你在痛苦时就能好好反思(这个要求也许太高),这非常好。如果你能够记得在痛苦消失后进行反思,这也很有价值。(我设计了一个“痛苦按钮”App帮助人们这么做,我在《原则》书中的附录进行了详细介绍。)

你面临的挑战将会考验你,强化你。如果你没有经历过失败,就说明你没有努力突破极限,而如果你不努力突破极限,你就不能最大限度地挖掘自己的潜能。努力突破极限有时失败有时成功,但总能带来益处。虽然这种做法不一定适合所有人,但假如适合你,那将会是一种美妙的体验,令人沉迷。生活不可避免地会带给你这样的考验,而你愿不愿意不断去尝试,取决于你自己。

如果你选择在这条常常很痛苦的个人进化之路上拼搏,你将自然而然地不断“更上一层楼”。当你越过包围你的事物,到达了更高一层的境界,你就会发现,其实那些事物并没有你近看时所以为的那么重要。生活中的大多数东西都不过是“同类情况的重演”。你的层次越高,就能更加有效地应对现实,塑造符合你目标的结果。而曾经看起来无比复杂的东西,也会变得简单。

20181209

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/2MtcoFwlpldo2KA81B6xWA

自然的一项根本法则是,为了赢得力量,人必须努力突破极限,而这是痛苦的。

As Carl Jung put it, “Man needs difficulties. They are necessary for health.” Yet most people instinctually avoid pain. This is true whether we are talking about building the body (e.g., weight lifting) or the mind (e.g., frustration, mental struggle, embarrassment, shame)—and especially true when people confront the harsh reality of their own imperfections.

正如卡尔·荣格所说,“人需要困难,这对健康来说是必需的”。但多数人本能地躲避痛苦。不论是锻炼身体还是头脑,人都会躲避痛苦,如举重的痛苦,如受挫、思想挣扎、尴尬、耻辱的痛苦。当人们面对“自身存在不完美”这个残酷现实时,这一点就体现得更明显了。

20181209

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/-wXWizKWZdq7BkE3OUYthA

记住”没有痛苦就没有收获”

Realizing that we innately want to evolve—and that the other stuff we are going after, while nice, won’t sustain our happiness—has helped me focus on my goals of evolving and contributing to evolution in my own infinitely small way. While we don’t like pain, everything that nature made has a purpose, so nature gave us pain for a purpose. So what is its purpose? It alerts us and helps direct us.

我们天生想要进化,而我们追逐的其他东西尽管美好,却不能维持我们的快乐,这一认识帮助我专注于我的目标:不断进化,为整体进化贡献绵薄之力。虽然我们不喜欢痛苦,但自然的一切创造皆有目的,所以自然让我们痛苦是有意图的。那么意图是什么?痛苦让我们警醒,帮助我们进步。

20181207

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/DOIZjaL09er3V3fBOMTSqg

把你的进化最大化

Because humans are capable of conscious, memory-based learning, we can evolve further and faster than any other species, changing not just across generations but within our own lifetimes.

This constant drive toward learning and improvement makes getting better innately enjoyable and getting better fast exhilarating. Though most people think that they are striving to get the things (toys, bigger houses, money, status, etc.) that will make them happy, for most people those things don’t supply anywhere near the long-term satisfaction that getting better at something does. Once we get the things we are striving for, we rarely remain satisfied with them. The things are just the bait. Chasing after them forces us to evolve, and it is the evolution and not the rewards themselves that matters to us and to those around us. This means that for most people success is struggling and evolving as effectively as possible, i.e., learning rapidly about oneself and one’s environment, and then changing to improve.

It is natural that it should be this way because of the law of diminishing returns. Consider what acquiring money is like. People who earn so much that they derive little or no marginal gains from it will experience negative consequences, as with any other form of excess, like gluttony. If they are intellectually healthy, they will begin seeking something new or seeking new depths in something old—and they will get stronger in the process. As Freud put it, “Love and work are the cornerstones of our humanness.”

The work doesn’t necessarily have to be a job, though I believe it’s generally better if it is a job. It can be any kind of long-term challenge that leads to personal improvement. As you might have guessed, I believe that the need to have meaningful work is connected to man’s innate desire to improve. And relationships are the natural connections to others that make us relevant to each other and to society more broadly.

因为人类能进行有意识的、以记忆为基础的学习,所以比任何物种都更快、更深入地进化,不仅一代代地进化,而且在自己的一生中进化。

这种持续追求学习和改进的动力,让人类天生地对进步感到快乐,对快速进步感到兴奋。尽管大多数人觉得他们是在追求能让自己快乐的东西(玩具、大房子、金钱、地位等),但这些只能带来小的满足,远远比不上进步能给大多数人带來的长期满足感。得到了追求的东西后,我们的满足感通常不会持久。这些东西只是诱饵。追逐诱饵,就必须进化,而且对所有人来说重要的是进化,而不是回报本身。这意味着对大多数人而言,成功就是以尽可能高效的方式去拼搏和进化,即迅速认识自身和所处环境,然后通过改变实现进步。

这是收益递减规律的自然结果。想想赚钱这件事。一旦钱赚得太多,人从赚钱中得到的边际收益就会很小或者没有,这会对人产生负面影响,这和任何形式的过量是一个道理,如暴饮暴食。如果拥有健康的心智,人们就会开始探索新东西,或者更深入地探索旧东西,并在这个过程中变得更强大。如弗洛伊德所说,“爱与工作是人性的基石”。

工作不一定是一份职业,不过我认为如果是职业的话,通常要好一些。而工作可以是任何使人进步的长期挑战。你也许已经猜到了,我相信,人们对有意义的工作的需求,与人天生对进步的渴望相关。而人际关系就是人与他人的自然联系,它会使人对他人和整个社会有意义。

20181206

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/XNEJAHhSJAl_Zd9xKKIxzw

你的未来取决于你的视角

Where you go in life will depend on how you see things and who and what you feel connected to (your family, your community, your country, mankind, the whole ecosystem, everything). You will have to decide to what extent you will put the interests of others above your own, and which others you will choose to do so for. That’s because you will regularly encounter situations that will force you to make such choices.

While such decisions might seem too erudite for your taste, you will make them either consciously or subliminally, and they will be very important.

For me personally, I now find it thrilling to embrace reality, to look down on myself through nature’s perspective, and to be an infinitesimally small part of the whole. My instinctual and intellectual goal is simply to evolve and contribute to evolution in some tiny way while I’m here and while I am what I am. At the same time, the things I love most—my work and my relationships—are what motivate me. So, I find how reality and nature work, including how I and everything will decompose and recompose, beautiful—though emotionally I find the separation from those I care about difficult to appreciate.

你在一生中取得什么样的成就,将取决于你如何看待事物,以及你关心什么人、什么东西(你的家庭、社区、国家、人类、整个生态系统,等等)。你必须决定,你将在多大程度上把他人的利益置于自身利益之上,以及你将以这样的方式对待哪些人,因为你将不断遇到迫使你做出上述抉择的情况。

也许这样对你来说太深奥了,但你还是会有意识或下意识地做出这样的抉择,而且这些抉择将是很重要的。

就个人而言,我现在发现,拥抱现实、从自然的视角俯视自身、做宇宙中微不足道的一小部分,是件很美妙的事。我的本能目标和有意识的目标都只是进化,用自己的生命和特性,以某种微弱的方式为进化做贡献。同时,我最喜欢的东西(我的工作和人际关系)是我的驱动力。由此,我发现现实和自然的规律都是美好的——包括我以及一切东西将会如何分解、重组,尽管在情感上,我很难接受将要与我关心的东西最终分离。

20181205

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/Iwu_9VlyzKIdueuRXhej6A

意识到你即是一切又什么都不是,并决定你想成为什么样的人

It is a great paradox that individually we are simultaneously everything and nothing. Through our own eyes, we are everything—e.g., when we die, the whole world disappears. So to most people (and to other species) dying is the worst thing possible, and it is of paramount importance that we have the best life possible. However, when we look down on ourselves through the eyes of nature we are of absolutely no significance. It is a reality that each one of us is only one of about seven billion of our species alive today and that our species is only one of about ten million species on our planet. Earth is just one of about 100 billion planets in our galaxy, which is just one of about two trillion galaxies in the universe. And our lifetimes are only about 1/3,000 of humanity’s existence, which itself is only 1/20,000 of the Earth’s existence. In other words, we are unbelievably tiny and short-lived and no matter what we accomplish, our impact will be insignificant.

At the same time, we instinctually want to matter and to evolve, and we can matter a tiny bit—and it’s all those tiny bits that add up to drive the evolution of the universe. The question is how we matter and evolve. Do we matter to others (who also don’t matter in the grand scope of things) or in some greater sense that we will never actually achieve? Or does it not matter if we matter so we should forget about the question and just enjoy our lives while they last?

我们每个人既是一切又什么都不是,这是一个巨大的悖论。在我们自己看来,我们就是一切,例如,我们的生命终止了,对于我们而言,全世界也就消失了。因此,对大多数人(以及其他物种)而言,失去生命是最糟糕不过的事情,并且尽量拥有最好的生活是无比重要的。但是,如果从自然的视角俯视我们自身,我们显然又是毫无分量的。现实是,今天的每个人都只是约70亿人类中的一员,而人类又只是地球上约1000万物种中的一种。地球只是银河系约1000亿颗行星中的一个,而全宇宙有约2万亿个星系。人的寿命只是人类历史的约3000分之一,而人类历史又只是地球历史的2万分之一。换言之,我们渺小、短暂得不可思议,无论取得什么样的成就,其影响都是微不足道的。

但同时,我们又本能地希望人生有意义,希望进化。即使我们只能产生一丁点儿意义,所有这些一点点的意义加起来,就是宇宙进化的推动力。 问题在于我们到底如何重要以及如何进化。我们对其他人重要(他们和我们一样,从宏观角度来看也不重要)?还是我们在某种更大的、永远无法真正理解的意义上重要?还是说,我们重不重要这个问题根本不重要,所以我们应该忘掉它,及时行乐?

20181204

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/aMFdp60zcY2z6rDv206qfQ

通过快速试错以适应现实是无价的

Natural selection’s trial-and-error process allows improvement without anyone understanding or guiding it. The same can apply to how we learn. There are at least three kinds of learning that foster evolution: memory-based learning (storing the information that comes in through one’s conscious mind so that we can recall it later); sub-conscious learning (the knowledge we take away from our experiences that never enters our conscious minds, though it affects our decision making); and “learning” that occurs without thinking at all, such as the changes in DNA that encode a species’ adaptations. I used to think that memory-based, conscious learning was the most powerful, but I’ve since come to understand that it produces less rapid progress than experimentation and adaptation.

To give you an example of how nature improves without thinking, just look at the struggle that mankind (with all its thinking) has experienced in trying to outsmart viruses (which don’t even have brains). Viruses are like brilliant chess opponents. By evolving quickly (combining different genetic material across different strains), they keep the smartest minds in the global health community busy thinking up countermoves to hold them off. Understanding that is especially helpful in an era when computers can run large numbers of simulations replicating the evolutionary process to help us see what works and what doesn’t.

不需要任何人的理解或引导,自然选择的试错过程就能实现改进。我们进行的学习也是这个道理。至少有三种学习能促进进化:以记忆为基础的学习(有意识地储存不断出现的信息,以便以后可以记起来);潜意识的学习(从未进入意识的,我们从经验中习得的知识,但也会影响我们的决策);与人类思考无关的“学习”,例如记录物种适应进程的基因的进化。我曾以为以记忆为基础的有意识的学习是最有力的,但后来我明白,试验和适应能带来更快的进步。

举个例子说明自然是如何不依靠思考而进步的,只需看看(能思考的)人类与(连大脑都没有的)病毒斗智斗勇的过程。病毒就像是聪明的国际象棋对手。病毒飞快地进化(通过将不同种类病毒的遗传物质结合在一起),让全球卫生领域里最聪明的人们忙的不可开交,不断思索对付病毒的方法。在当今这个时代,理解这一点尤为有用,因为今天的计算机可以运行大量展现进化过程的模拟程序,帮助我们看到什么是有效的,而什么又是无效的。

20181203

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/R2AStlDmjumWOeM18rV4FQ

个体的激励机制必须符合群体的目标

To give you a quick example of nature creating incentives that lead to individuals pursuing their own interests that result in the advancement of the whole, look at sex and natural selection. Nature gave us one hell of an incentive to have sex in the form of the great pleasure it provides, even though the purpose of having sex is to contribute to the advancement of the DNA. That way, we individually get what we want while contributing to the evolution of the whole.

自然创造了各种激励机制,促使追求自身利益的个体带来整体的进步。一个简单的例子是性与自然选择。自然给了人类极多的从事性行为的激励,主要表现为该行为会提供巨大的快乐,但它的目的是促进基因的进化。通过这一方式,每个个体的需求都得到了满足,也为整体的进化做了贡献。

20181202

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/YrK6KV7a6Sj_gNW5qegr_w

不进化就死亡

This evolutionary cycle is not just for people but for countries, companies, economies—for everything. And it is naturally self-correcting as a whole, though not necessarily for its parts. For example, if there is too much supply and waste in a market, prices will go down, companies will go out of business, and capacity will be reduced until the supply falls in line with the demand, at which time the cycle will start to move in the opposite direction. Similarly, if an economy turns bad enough, those responsible for running it will make the political and policy changes that are needed—or they will not survive, making room for their replacements to come along. These cycles are continuous and play out in logical ways—and they tend to be self-reinforcing.

The key is to fail, learn, and improve quickly. If you’re constantly learning and improving, your evolutionary process will look like the one that’s ascending. Do it poorly and it will look like what you see below, or worse.

这个进化循环不仅适用于人,也适用于国家、企业、经济体,以及一切事物。整体会自动地自我修正,个体却不一定。例如,假如市场供给过多、浪费过多的话,价格就会下跌,企业就会破产,产能就会降低,直至供给下降到与需求相适应的水平,那时进化循环又会从相反的方向重新开始。与此类似,假如一个经济体的情况足够糟,经济管理者就会做出必需的政治改革和政策调整,否则他们将无法留任,只能把位子让出来。这些循环是连续的、以符合逻辑的方式推进的,而且有自我强化倾向。

关键在于经历失败、学习和快速的改进。如果你不停地学习和改进,你的进化过程就会循环上升;如果做得不好,它就会如下图,甚至更糟。

20181201

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/eRbJeSjXUs3KSc9MZm7uOA

进化是宇宙中最强大的力量,是唯一永恒的东西,是一切的驱动力

Everything from the smallest subatomic particle to the entire galaxy is evolving. While everything apparently dies or disappears in time, the truth is that it all just gets reconfigured in evolving forms. Remember that energy can’t be destroyed—it can only be reconfigured. So the same stuff is continuously falling apart and coalescing in different forms. The force behind that is evolution.

For example, the primary purpose of every living thing is to act as a vessel for the DNA that evolves life through time. The DNA that exists within each individual came from an eternity ago and will continue to live long after its individual carriers pass away, in increasingly evolved forms.

从最小的亚原子粒子到整个银河系,一切都在进化。尽管所有东西似乎都会死亡或消失,但真相是,它们只是以进化的形式重新组合了。就像能量是不能被摧毁的,只能改变其形态。所以,同样的东西一直在不断分裂又以不同形式重组。其背后的力量就是进化。

例如,每一个生物的首要目的就是能承载推动生命进化的基因。每个个体体内的基因都来自远古时代,基因在承载它的个体死去之后还会长存,继续进化。